cotton


 

Hey farmer, farmer, put away that DDT now.

 - Joni Mitchell

 In the United States, these chemicals were detected in almost all human blood samples tested by the Centers for Disease Control in 2005, though their levels have sharply declined since most uses were banned.[60] Estimated dietary intake has declined,[60] although FDA food tests commonly detect it.[61]

 In the United States, these chemicals were detected in almost all human blood samples tested by the Centers for Disease Control in 2005, though their levels have sharply declined since most uses were banned.[60] Estimated dietary intake has declined,[60] although FDA food tests commonly detect it.[61]


 

Organic Cotton

 History of Organic Cotton

Contemporary American organic farming has its roots in the humus farming move- ments that spread across Great Britain and continental Europe from the 1920s through the 1950s. These movements evolved largely in response to the increasing

use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The proponents of humus farming believed that the highest quality food and the sustainability of agriculture were achieved by “feeding the soil,” thereby building soil fertility. Their goal was to increase the humus—the fully decom- posed organic matter that has reached a stable state in the soil. Humus farming was typified by mixed farms that included livestock, food crops, feed crops, and green manures. Humus farming made little or no use of soluble commercial fertilizers or pesticides, in part because the health of the soil rendered them unnecessary.

The 1960s and 1970s brought more visibility to organic farming in the United States, as public concern over pesticide use increased. In the minds of consumers, the non-use of pesticides was an important part of organic agriculture. The growth of the organic industry during this era led to the establishment of standards and third-party certifica- tion. Third-party certification is an assessment process carried out to verify compliance with standards. It involves the producer (farmer), the consumer (buyer), and a third party—the certifying agent who affirms that the product is produced in accordance with the organic regulations.

As the organic industry expanded during the 1980s, different certifiers developed their own standards and certification processes. As a result, some certifiers did not accept the valid- ity of organic certification by other certifiers. These disparities among certifier standards resulted in barriers to trade, which led many to believe that a consistent set of standards was needed: a single set of U.S. standards for organic production, labeling, and market- ing. Eventually, Congress passed the Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) of 1990. This act mandated creation of the National Organic Program (NOP), which is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB).

The NOSB is an advisory board of 15 volunteers:

  • Organic producers (farmers)

  • Organic handlers (processors)

  • Retailers

  • Environmentalists

  • Scientists

  • Consumer advocates

    After the NOSB makes a recommendation on a new regulation or standard, there is a review and comment period. The NOP then determines the appropriate regulatory action to carry forward. In addition to the setting of standards (rulemaking), the accreditation of organic certifiers and the enforcement of the regulations are important tasks of the NOP

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline organochlorine known for its insecticidal properties and environmental impacts. First synthesized in 1874, DDT's insecticidal action was discovered by the Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller in 1939. DDT was used in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods" in 1948.[5]

By October 1945, DDT was available for public sale in the United States. Although it was promoted by government and industry for use as an agricultural and household pesticide, there were also concerns about its use from the beginning.[6] Opposition to DDT was focused by the 1962 publication of Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring. It cataloged environmental impacts that coincided with widespread use of DDT in agriculture in the United States, and it questioned the logic of broadcasting potentially dangerous chemicals into the environment with little prior investigation of their environment and health effects. The book claimed that DDT and other pesticides had been shown to cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds. Its publication was a seminal event for the environmental movement and resulted in a large public outcry that eventually led, in 1972, to a ban on DDT's agricultural use in the United States.[7] A worldwide ban on agricultural use was formalized under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, but its limited and still-controversial use in disease vector control continues,[8][9] because of its effectiveness in reducing malarial infections, balanced by environmental and other health concerns.

Along with the passage of the Endangered Species Act, the United States ban on DDT is a major factor in the comeback of the bald eagle (the national bird of the United States) and the peregrine falcon from near-extinction in the contiguous United States.[10][11]

 
  • Fast fact #1

Contemporary American organic farming has its roots in the humus farming move- ments that spread across Great Britain and continental Europe from the 1920s th


  • Fast fact #1

In the U.S., cotton ranks in third place in terms of pesticide use after only corn and soybeans. More than 38 million pounds of pesticides were used on cotton in 2014. The same year, cotton ranked fourth in terms of fertilizer use on crops – almost 973 million pounds – behind only corn, soybeans, and wheat. (2)


  • Fast fact #1

Contemporary American organic farming has its roots in the humus farming move- ments that spread across Great Britain and continental Europe from the 1920s th

(2) https://ota.com/advocacy/fiber-and-textiles/organic-cotton/cotton-and-environment#_ftn5